New approaches to educational policy- new educational technologies.

New approaches to educational policy- new educational technologies.

1 April 2015


JSC “Economic Research Institute” Ministry of National Economy of the Republic of Kazakhstan, the Center of Scientific Economic Expertise


The current stage of education development in the world is characterized by distinct intensity transformations, equally affecting the organizational and management structure of education, its target figures and content, methods and technologies of training, sources and mechanisms of financing, as well as the conditions and forms of educational, scientific and industrial cooperation.

According to international experience of developed countries can be identified five key principles that characterize new approaches to education policy.

1) The educational policies focus on ensuring the quality and accessibility of education, regardless of students' abilities, their social status and ethnic origin. Among the successful government measures we can include the following:

• In England, carried out a policy to increase the number of free schools, which are publicly funded independent schools that are not under the control of local government bodies and are not required to follow the national academic programme. Freedom provided to this schools under the design of training programs aimed at enhancing creativity in appliance of advanced technologies in teaching. Also free schools are non-commercial organizations that may be created also by group of charities, universities, teachers, parents and business community.

Australia and Denmark focused on improving the coverage and quality of early childhood education and children’s care. For example, Australia introduced index of early development, giving a brief description of pre-school age children on such parameters as: health status, maturity degree, social competence, knowledge and language. Local educational institutions have the opportunity to use these data in the preparation of relevant curricula.

• In turn, Denmark introduced a mandatory assessment of development level of the state language for all children of three years age, which is aimed at the diagnosis of possible language problems before they reach preschool age. If some problems occurred, the government can provide support for parents.

2) It is better to prepare students for the future. To this end, many countries focused on improving the quality and relevance of their programs of technical professional and higher education and their relations labor market demands, and strengthening control over the quality of education.

Poland has modified the national curriculum for general secondary and technical and vocational education (TVE). These programs are aimed at helping students to develop specific skills while teaching in high school (3-4 years), the new curriculum includes the development of reading skills, mathematical thinking, scientific thinking, communication skills, the use of information and communication technologies, critical thinking, and also problem-solving skills, self-reflection and group work.

• In Germany, where a system of TVE and cooperation between educational institutions, employers and other social partners are well-developed, was applied a course to improve flexibility in the TVE system, aimed at increasing access to higher education for young people who successfully complete the TVE training program.

• For purposes of education orientation to the labor market demands, many countries are inviting stakeholders in the development of training programs for students and places of production practices. For example, in Luxembourg, the Ministry of Education co-operates with employers and members of the House Committee on professional training to adapt the directions of academic program for the development of the labor market and acquire the necessary skills. Six chambers consist of three employers (Chamber of Industry and Commerce, the Chamber of handicraft trade, Chamber of Agriculture) and three for employees (Chamber of Labour, the Chamber of engineering and technological workers and the Chamber of civil servants and officials). Each of them represents the corresponding field of activity, realizes the control function and supervision over certain organizations in the field of TVE.

3) Focusing the attention of countries on the improvement of schools in order to develop a supportive learning environment to attract and retain quality staff.

• In Hungary and Japan have been improved training programs, which include the main directions for the development of communication skills, digital literacy and the development of key competencies of students.

• In Australia was established the Australian Institute of teaching and school management, aimed at the development of national education policy and support teachers in their formation of expert practitioners, development and application of advanced technologies in teaching and school management.

• In Singapore, was established the National Institute of Education, which has the exclusive right of training specialists on teachers' position. In addition, the Institute makes an active research work on the generalization and analysis of the best pedagogical practices worldwide. Under the Institute was established Center of Research in field of educational and practice theory, which became the base of the expert evaluation of many reform programs of education in Singapore, as well as features of the educational process and simply disputable situation in the schools and in classrooms.

• In the Netherlands, has developed a Program of Teachers, the key areas are: to attract the best graduates of schools to the Program of training teachers; improvement of educational programs of pedagogical faculties; providing directions of professional development; support development of teachers at the beginning of their careers; increasing the skills and qualifications of teachers; support the professional organization of teachers.

• In France and Finland only holders of a master’s degree can be prohibited to the teaching in schools. Obtaining this degree requires mandatory passage of the following courses: communicative competence, technology of education, pedagogy and psychology, the main subject specialization, additional subject specialization, elective courses. The country has also schools of higher education in teacher training, combining theoretical and practical training, continuing education and development of innovative teaching methods.

• In Norway, in order to attract the most successful graduates in pedagogical faculties the initiative was undertaken to carry out advertising campaigns by posting a short video on the Internet and television, as a result of which from 2008 to 2013 was attracted nearly 60% of the total number of students of pedagogical universities.

• In Israel, were adopted several programs to attract successful professionals to teach in schools, according to the applicants who are required by the presence of professional experience at least five years.

Applicants who passed the selection further will have free courses on teaching techniques and after a three-year teaching practice they are given free education program for master’s degree

4) Analysis and evaluation in education aimed to improve student knowledge level and school system improvement have become a key directions of policy in most developed countries.

New Zealand has introduced a single three-stage National Certificate of Educational Achievement (NCEA). In general, students passes from the first to third levels during the sudy at the school from 11 to 13 grades, for the successful completion of each of them, they need to get a certain number of credits for individual subjects. The system of education in the school from 11 to 13 grades is as follows: training in the 11th grade to obtain after the exams NCEA Level 1 qualification of basic secondary education; training in the 12th grade to obtain after the exams NCEA level 2 qualification, then it is possible to enter the professional education program in high schools with a degree Certificate, Diploma; training in the 13th grade to obtain after the exams NCEA level 3 qualification, allowing universities to enroll in a program of academic education with a bachelor’s degree.

Italy has introduced a pilot project of the national assessment system of VALES schools , provides an opportunity for schools to participate in the assessment process of their results and activity. The assessment process of schools includes internal assessment, carried out by the school management. Hereafter the results automatically passes to the group of appraisers. The external evaluation of schools is used to improve the work plan of the school and its trends, and to assess the competence of school management. The information of assessments officially published for general access.

5) The development of comprehensive vision of education management and improvement of the distribution of roles and responsibilities or by creating new institutions, or by reorganization of local management mechanisms.

• Formation of educational clusters “education - technology – production” as a form of public-private partnership institutions of secondary vocational education and the employer, has received wide spread in the implementation process of state educational policy of developed countries. In this case, the educational cluster serves as educational system of mutual learning and self-learning tools in the innovation chain “education, technology, production”, based mainly on the horizontal linkages within the chain. As members of the partnership are the teachers, students and their parents, education authorities, public authorities and municipal governments, employers (companies, industry associations, consortium), non-governmental organizations. In the educational cluster all participating subjects regulate multilevel system of specialist training of required qualifications: the employer determines what to teach, educational institution - how to teach, and vocational education considers as a process, which is based on its integration with production. Besides the educational cluster defines independence in the choice of vocational - training programs, the introduction of cross-curriculum overtaking main directions and specialty training staff.

• In the context of the analysis of new approaches to education policy should consider the experience of the Russian Federation for the development of autonomous educational institutions that represent an intermediate form between the state (municipal) and non-state (private) institution. Autonomous institution is not a government agency, despite the fact that is financed from the budget, which takes the form of subsidies and provides funding for municipal jobs. The main advantages of the autonomous institutions are: the relative autonomy and independence; the opportunity to have own funds that not included in the budget, and the right for free disposal of them; the right to have property; elimination of the need to participate in competitions and tenders; the possibility of obtaining loans from banks; the opportunity to participate in financial transactions.

Thus, analysis of selected reforms in educational policy shows that the most effective policy measures are those that puts students and process of learning to the center of attention, enhance the potential of teachers and involve all stakeholders, including educational services sector, the scientific sector, manufacturing and business. In most developed countries, teachers' unions and professional organizations, in particular, are increasingly involved in the implementation of policy measures. Teachers' unions are calling for a more structured dialogue with the government, and the business communities are more interested in creating closer relations with the educational system.

With that, in Kazakhstan over the past few years a a number of reforms in education policy were carried out, including the application of leading practices of developed countries, and domestic development of individual policy elements of educational field. Thus, for today, have been taken the following approaches to the national educational policy.

1) In order to improve the effectiveness of training, training of future graduates for tertiary education system or the transition to the labor market. Government is planning to pass on a 12-year education system and reorganize teaching at the level of 11th grade to provide a more in-depth study of the natural sciences and mathematics, social sciences and liberal arts, as well as the technological sphere. The package of measures also provides strengthening the degree of parental involvement through the establishment of school boards and parents' associations in order to improve accountability of school activity and clarity of assessment methods.

2) Nazarbayev Intellectual Schools in cooperation with the staff of the Faculty of Education, of Cambridge University have developed a three-level training programs for teachers of secondary schools in Kazakhstan. The first basic level, the second - main level, the third - advanced. Priorities of the program consists of seven modules: new approaches to teaching and learning, teaching critical thinking, assessment for learning and assessment of learning, the use of Information and communication technologies in teaching and learning, teaching gifted and talented children. Passage of these levels of teacher training has an impact on increasing their wages. In particular, during the passage of the first base-level, wage increases by 30%, the second level - 70%, and the third (advanced) level - 100%.

3) The five-year national plan of action for the development of functional literacy of students was developed in 2012 to provide the development of functional literacy skills, stimulate creative thinking and problem-solving skills, as well as strengthening the readiness of pupils to the system of continual education. This plan includes a number of measures, first of all, updating educational standards, programs and curricula, along with the reform of management system in order to give schools more autonomy to adjust the curriculum.

4)The centers of leading practices have been set up on the basis of a network of new schools - Nazarbayev Intellectual Schools - as incubators of innovation, aimed at providing incentives to students for learning, to teachers - a new system of training and to schools - opportunities to provide personalized education environment, that are more needed to each student. In parallel with this, governments are working to improve the assessment system through the introduction of standardized national assessments at the end of each cycle of education and assessment standards for evaluating student performance in the classroom.

5) Governments pay particular attention to the problem of small schools, and the reform envisages the creation of a network of 26 resource centers to support them. These centers will offer short-term training courses, as well as intermediate and final certification examinations for teachers and students of small schools.

6) In the near future the state bodies will provide conversion to per capita funding of schools, which takes into account the number of students in each school and selection of additional factors to account for differences in schools and regions. The activity of new funding mechanism should also be for the benefit of schools operating in difficult conditions, such as low contingent of students, higher technical maintenance costs, remote location, etc.

7) The new holding company "Kasіpkor" was created to manage the development of high-quality technical education system, as well as the initiation of new approaches in providing professional educational organizations. The main activity of the company is to build world-class colleges in the Astana and Almata, as well as the management of inter-regional trade centers for training and retraining of personnel.

8) In 2011, the state authorities made a very important step – it provided financial implementation in Kazakhstan of world trend of higher education as academic mobility. Now the students of National universities at the expense of state can study for a semester in the best European universities, students from other regional universities of Kazakhstan - in the National universities. In this case, the credit technology allows reckon such training at another university.

9) Granting the academic freedom for universities. Its basic meaning - in educational programs will be increased component of choice: a bachelor's degree up to 70%, a master's degree up to 80% and doctoral thesis up to 90-95%. For the first time the country raised the question of autonomy of universities. It is a question of the autonomy implementation of educational, scientific, financial, international and other activities. The Nazarbayev University is already on that way. In future its established mechanisms will apply to other universities. State universities become autonomous non-profit organizations - such an approach is widely used in the world. It will allow each institute to increase its own image and be recognized on the world stage.

10) A national model of accreditation of colleges and universities was worked out in Kazakhstan on the basis of a phased transmission of the external assessment of the state in the public sector, by way of the main instrument of institutional and program accreditation. But for all that The Ministry of Education and Science of Kazakhstan retained the right to determine the agency that the government trusts the process of accreditation by drawing up the National Register of accreditation bodies. According to regulatory changes, institutional accreditation in Kazakhstan will be held by Kazakh agencies, program – by agencies included in the national registry.

In view of the analysis of the international practices of developed countries can be suggested the following:

• Professional development of teachers. To consider the establishment of the National Institute of Education, this will have the exclusive right for training on teachers’ position that will improve the quality of teaching in educational institutions. At that in the long term, to provide in the selection criteria for teaching in schools obligatory presence of a master's degree.

• To consider the introduction opportunity of new mechanisms of cooperation within the education cluster "education - science - business", emphasizing on the practical application of acquired knowledge;

• To analyze and review the school curriculum, particularly including in the curriculum of high school subjects, aimed at developing specific skills: mathematical thinking, communication skills, critical thinking, problem-solving skills, self-reflection and group work.

• To revise the assessment system of received school knowledge. For example, consider the experience of New Zealand on the introduction of a single three-stage National Certificate of Educational Achievement. At that the assessment of knowledge should be revised so that the system should test not only the level of theoretical knowledge, but also the ability to apply knowledge and skills of higher-level thinking.

• To conduct advertising campaigns in order to increase the attractiveness of the teaching profession or teacher by posting a short video on the Internet and television.

At the same time, along with the development of effective public education policies the key importance in the educational system of advanced educational technologies aimed at improving the quality of education and skills, as well as ensuring compliance with the acquired skills in learning according to labor market needs.

This way, one of the main reasons of low labor productivity in Kazakhstan is the devaluation of the national education: specialists’ expansion with higher education today is not the indicator of the general level education of society. According to the index of economic difficulty (Harvard University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology: "Atlas of Economic Difficulty") measures the total amount of knowledge contained in the national economy, Kazakhstan is ranked 64th out of 144 countries in the world, while Belarus ranks 28th place, Armenia - on the 44th , Russia - on the 45th , and only Kyrgyzstan – 66th.

At the same time, the share of employed population in the economy of Kazakhstan with higher, incomplete higher education is 35% (in the developed countries, on average 44%), while the productivity of workers with higher education in Kazakhstan on average at the same level as the workers who do not have higher education. For example, employees with higher education in 2014 produced the share of GDP in the amount of 13.3 trillion tenge, which is 39% of total GDP, while in developed countries where the contribution of employees with higher education is 70-80% of GDP. This gap results from a resource-intensive economy of Kazakhstan, the country's low capacity to produce more sophisticated products, while in developed countries a large proportion of GDP is determined by scientific and technological progress and innovation economy. In particular, the US GDP of almost 40% is created in the areas of research, education and production software when in Kazakhstan major share in GDP is industry - 27.6%, and wholesale and retail trade - 16.5% of GDP.

Furthermore, according to a study conducted by the National Institute of Economic and Social Research of UK, "The Effects of Higher Education on Economic Growth" in 15 developed countries, the accumulation of skills acquired at higher education led to the growth of labor productivity by an average of 0,1-0, 7 percentage points per year over the period 1994-2005 year. The study found that the contribution of accumulated skills acquired by graduates with higher education, and 14-20% of GDP growth of the UK. Thus, countries that were able to provide high quality education, achieve higher performance.

In turn, to improve the productivity of workers with higher education and increase their contribution to economic development Kazakhstan has to make a qualitative change in the education process. However, a significant role in improving the quality of education plays development and implementation of new progressive educational technologies. Among modern educational technologies used today in Kazakhstan, should note the following: distance education technologies; projective and game educational technology; informative-communicative technology training; personality-centered learning.

It should be noted that at the present time, both in Kazakhstan and in the world education system faces three major problems: the high price of educational services; obtained knowledge is often isolated from the requirements of society; the usage of outdated methods in the learning process. Consequently, the educational model of the XXI century will be based on such principles as:

- Free and available education to everyone (through Internet technology, global learning communities);

- Inspiring education (education of the XX century sat pupil / student on the passenger seat, and the car driven by the teacher and the system; while in the new era pupil changes the passenger’s seat to the driver's seat and he determines his way. Thus, the student is at the center of the learning process , he is given the opportunity to choose his own way and direction necessary for his personal, professional and social development, and the role of the teacher - as a mentor who guides the pupil / student to new discoveries);

- New qualitative education is providing another creative educational environment for personal and collective creativity (this principle includes the following areas: the transfer of learning from the audiences to the streets, the development of a new level of self-knowledge, the usage of network capacity for self-regulation to create new teaching practices, and the transition from " superficial "knowledge to the" deep "knowledge. The basic tools are such as: the development of skills of self-analysis, self-awareness, the use of appropriate educational tools and techniques in conjunction with real life, practical training meetings with mentors, coaches to share experiences and knowledge through Internet sites, meeting places).

In this connection, today the most demanded in the educational market are teaching methods aimed o attract a wide range of students and providing a more flexible and effective learning saving time and cost. The most popular methods among the modern educational technologies are the following:

1) Closed online courses that provide an opportunity to get an education, regardless to the student's location and at a convenient time he mut to pass pre-selection, having passed the relevant exam to check the availability of the necessary basic knowledge, and pay the required amount of training completion. Closed online courses can be provided both in the certain university (for example, student in Kazakhstan can pass distance learning in higher education for master's degree, PhD, second and following higher education, professional development) and groups of universities. For example, the United Kingdom united all online courses under the brand name «Open University», where as mentors are professors from various universities in the country. In the time of training on these courses used a wide range of distance learning methods, such as written work, video and audio materials, and the Internet conference, accompanied by the support of a mentor and regular full-time group seminar and residential schools.

Another graphic example of a closed online education is an educational project «Minerva», created in 2014 in the form of a closed commercial elite education system at the Keck Graduate Institute in California, which is engaged in the training of specialists for specific undergraduate. In Minerva study-classes are learning 19 people, they live together, but they study online. According to the founder of the project Ben Nelson, students do not need universities that teach such subjects as history, chemistry, political science. The effective thinking is more important now. Thus, in the first year the curriculum includes only three disciplines: critical thinking, creative thinking and effective communication. Minerva uses the method of solving cognitive tasks in teaching. Such tasks include working with the material, its application, discussion and challenging, rather than mechanical memorization. All lessons begin with the control test without preparation, which is aimed at improving the capacity for long-term memorization of material. Automation allows to conduct micromodule control of students' progress. In this case, the Minerva in the first year of study encourages students to use massive open online courses, passing and final test which is included in the overall learning process.

2) Massive open online courses are aimed to complement and improvement of the traditional education schemes. They represents as teaching online courses of new generation prepared by special provider companies of educational content with the participation of interesting and eminent lecturers. Moreover, these courses are available to any user at no charge. For today we can mark out Coursera, Udacity and edX as the largest projects. These platforms are aimed at providing education to everyone at the university level, including a variety of advanced courses for high school students to prepare for university entrance. In addition, upon completion of study the student is awarded a certificate of completion of the certain course. For example, in Russia on the platform Coursera run certain courses of Higher School of Economics and the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, where the credit for mastering of an online course is equivalent to the traditional credit.

In accordance with calculations of «Docebo», which specializes in online education services in the corporate segment, in 2016 the market volume of online education will grow by 25% and will reach to $ 50 billion.

3) Khan Academy - a project that positioned today as the most successful and, moreover, is a nonprofit educational organization established in 2006 by a graduate of MIT and Harvard Salman Khan. Currently, this non-profit organization has accumulated more than 100 thousand problematic teaching materials, at least 5,000 short videos on YouTube and is a source of knowledge for several million students. "Khan Academy" was originally created as an additional individual assistance for students, and now it is working closely with schools in search of new ways in learning organization. The Academy largely supports the idea of ​​an inverted class in which the learning takes place at home while watching movies, and in the classroom students performs various tasks.

4) Digital interactive training programs aimed at overcoming the problem of hard feed material in the textbooks. For example, the company «Amplify Learning» in 2014 released a full curriculum for grades 6-8 of school, which includes more than 300 books and lessons created by world-class experts. These programs are based on digital interactive lessons, as well as an animated interpretation of the classic literary texts.

Especially popular is the use of video games in the learning process, which provide the following advantages in their use. First, adaptive video games and applications may monitor your current skills of students and build a training sequence to the needs of students as well as their strong and weak traits. In addition, these technologies are able to collect data for all students to monitor the overall efficiency and conduct ongoing comparative analysis of performance. Secondly, video games contribute to the development of meta-cognitive skills is the ability to independently evaluate the thought process and make consistent decisions. Third, creative problem solving and critical thinking develops the ability to restore communication between the disciplines and thereby create interdisciplinary learning experience.

Thus, according to a survey of international research center «Games & Learning» most teachers of the US uses video games to study the material that goes beyond the standards in the classroom, developed taking into account the local component of the curriculum or national standard, as well as to assess the pupils' knowledge, which is especially important today - because video games are increasingly considered as part of the curriculum, rather than as a separate element. As a result of survey, nearly 80% of teachers reported that after the introduction of video games in training the students improved their understanding of the main program, and more than 70% of teachers indicated that children have improved meta-cognitive skills, and skills of cooperation and interaction.

5) Educational Laboratory MITxU.Lab is a unique experiment of creation a self-regulating global community joining previously unknown people to share experiences and knowledge. Participants MITxU.Lab laboratory combined into "hubs" (a place for co-education) and "learning circles" (groups of five people joining together on their own to meet using Google Hangout or Shype conference). MITxU.Lab provides the transfer of knowledge and instruments that are necessary for the conscious development of thinking systems thinking, leadership and innovative approaches. One of the main instruments is a master-classes, divided into several structural parts, including the verification of the ability to listen, repel the situation and to converse the constructive dialogue. And in the course of laboratory implements classes that include short lectures, meditation workshops, group discussions and others. Now in this community participate more than 28 000 participants from 190 countries who have joined several hundred local communities. Some communities are organized with the support of governments (such as the US and China), large commercial companies (eg, Google, Alibaba or ICBC) or non-profit organizations (eg, WWF) and universities.

Along with the new educational technologies should be noted the technical support for the invention of online learning as open ID cards «Open Badges», which are digital mini-certificates issued by educational institutions and other organizations to participants at the end of training courses. The metadata of Open Badges includes the following:

• Certain achievements that helped to earn the badge, and the conditions under which a person has demonstrated its competence;

• Qualification and reliability of education provider or organization that issued the badge;

• The correlation of badges with basic education;

• Identity verification of the badge and the appropriate protected information about his qualifications, competence and skills.

The participants of the program “Open Badges” can share, collect and combine include badges from other applications. The owner of the badge is possible to use a kind of portfolio to organize his own achievements in various fields, his education experience and transmit his skills to employers, in professional networks, etc.

Thus, current trends determine the mass of online courses, interactive digital training programs and international educational community as new trends in the learning process - the harbingers of the structural changes of the educational process. Despite the fact that these technologies are not able to fully replace classical education, but now the format of learning has opened many new ways and opportunities for quality education to millions of people.

On the basis of examined study of best international practices in the field of new educational technologies should be offered the following ways to improve the quality of domestic education system and to improve the image of educational institutions of Kazakhstan.

1) To study the potential of technology of online education in Kazakhstan following the example of such countries as Great Britain, Norway, Russia. In the future, consider the possibility of the formation of a unified national platform, which will be based on competent research and focus on the development of new knowledge, cooperation between higher education and industry of the region to use massive open online courses for vocational training. In particular, we should study the experience of the UK to unite all the online courses offered by national educational institutions, under a single brand at the state level;

2) To study the technology of modern online courses, as well as experience with video games in the learning process of students. For example, Coursera;

3) To consider the study of individual subjects and passing tests through educational platforms: for high school students - an opportunity to study subjects which are not included in the list of mandatory, through online courses; for students - a choice to undergo individual disciplines remotely, through ongoing educational platforms for online courses of eminent lecturers (Harvard, MIT, etc.) and equating them the general curriculum;

4) To study the experience of using mini digital certificates «Open Badges» by schools, which allows to accumulate and unite data about the end of the relevant online courses and to confirm the reliability of provided information.

It should be noted that the export of higher education gives significant revenues to the leading countries in the use of breakthrough educational technology. For example, according to some estimates revenues of the export of higher education in the budget of the United States is on the fifth place among industries and exceeded 20 billion dollars per year. The revenues of Australia and New Zealand from providing higher education to citizens of other countries are comparable with income derived from the export of wool - one of the main export products in those countries. While in Kazakhstan export of educational services is 0.46 million dollars (less than 0.1% of total services exports) or 243 times lower than the volume of imports of educational services.

Thus, as a result of the effective use of modern advanced educational technology in the teaching practice of domestic educational institutions in the long term can be expected to improve the quality of educational services, increasing the number of highly qualified personnel in the national economy, and consequently, an increase in the rate of economic growth and increase government revenue from the export of education services.


Acclaim company «Open Badges for Higher Education», 2014

Dawn Holland, National Institute of Economic and Social Research of United Kingdom: «The relationship between graduates and economic growth across countries» August, 2013

OECD, PISA «Results in Focus: What 15-year-olds know and what they can do with what they know», 2012

OECD, PISA «The High Cost of Low Educational Performance», 2010

OECD, «Education at a Glance 2014: OECD Indicators», OECD Publishing, 2014

Pundy Pillay, Centre for Higher Education Transformation «Higher Education and Economic Development», 2011

Research report «MOOCs: Opportunities for their use in compulsory-age education». June, 2014

Sianesi B., Van Reenen J. Returns to Education: A review of empirical macroeconomic literature // Journal of Economic Surveys. March, 2010.

Karpenko MP Proceedings of the monograph "distance learning", Chapter 3: Cost-effectiveness of education for the state in 2011

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Statistical data Committee on Statistics of the Ministry of National Economy of the Republic of Kazakhstan

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